• The Asia Direct Cable (ADC) is a 9400 km submarine cable connecting China (Hong Kong SAR and Guangdong Province), Japan, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

    The ADC cable system will feature eight fiber pairs and is designed to carry more than 140 Tbps of traffic, enabling high capacity transmission of data across the East and Southeast Asian regions.

    The ADC consortium comprises CAT, China Telecom, China Unicom, PLDT Inc., Singtel, SoftBank Corp., Tata Communications and Viettel. The initial investment of the project is about US$290 million.

    The ADC consortium has awarded the supply contract to NEC. ADC is expected to be completed by the fourth quarter of 2022.

    ADC System Route Map


  • The Asia Link Cable (ALC) is approximately 6,000-kilometer in length, connecting Hong Kong SAR China and Singapore as its trunk, with branches into the Philippines, Brunei Darussalam and Hainan, China.

    The ALC cable system will have a minimum eight fiber pairs, with 18 Tbps/Fiber Pair minimum trunk design capacity, adding more capacity and diversity to existing networks in the region.

    The ALC project is expected to cost US$300million (SG$420.8million)

    The ALC consortium comprises China Telecom Global Limited (CTG), Globe Telecom, Inc. (Globe), DITO Telecommunity Corporation (DITO), Singapore Telecommunications Limited (Singtel), Unified National Networks Sdn Bhd (UNN), FPT Telecom (Vietnam), and Malaysia Telecom.

    HMN Technologies Co., Limited (HMN Tech) was awarded as the system supplier and is expected to complete the construction of ALC by the third quarter of 2025.

    Asia Link Cable
  • ALPHA (Asia Link for Advanced Performance of High-Speed Access) is a new Intra-Asia subsea cable system connecting Singapore, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Vietnam, and more.

    The ALPHA cable features at least eight fiber pairs with 18 Tbps per fiber pair, enabling seamless and high-capacity transmission of data across the East and Southeast Asian regions.

    The ALPHA consortium comprises KT Corporation (KT), PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia International (Telin), and Japanese based party.

    ALPHA consortium signed a new Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to plan and develop the ALPHA cable system in January 2024.

    The ALPHA consortium aims to come into force in the third quarter, contract in 2024 and will sequentially proceed with procedures for selecting a turn-key supplier and preparation to deliver the contract. The ALPHA cable system is expected to be ready for service by the first quarter of 2027.

  • The Asia Pacific Cable Network (APCN)  is a 12000km pan-Asia submarine cable system linking Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand. The Asia Pacific Cable Network (APCN) consists of two fiber pairs, with a design capacity of 5 Gbps (2xSTM-16). APCN is the first SDH-enabled submarine cable in APAC region, ready for service in January 1997.

    The APCN has a one fiber pair extension cable to Australia, linking Jakarta (Indonesia) with Port Headland (Australia) through the Lombok Strait. The APCN Australian Extension is also know as the Jasuruas cable system.

    The APCN Consortium comprises

    • KDDI
    • Korea Telecom
    • Chunghwa Telecom
    • Cable & Wireless (Reach)
    • PLDT
    • SingTel
    • Telekom Indonesia
    • CAT Thailand
    • Telstra

    The APCN cable lands at the following cable landing stations: 

    • Miyazaki, Jepang, KDDI
    • Pusan, Korea, Korea Telecom
    • Toucheng, Taiwan, Chunghwa Telecom
    • Lantau, Hong Kong, Reach
    • Batangas, Philippines, PLDT
    • Mersing, Malaysia, Telecom Malaysia
    • Changi, Singapura, Singtel
    • Petchaburi, Thailand, CAT
    • Ancol, Jakarta, TeleKom Indonesia
    • Port Hedland, Australia, Telstra

    The APCN cable system was supplied by KDD-SCS, AT&T-SSI, Alcatel Submarine Networks, with an investment of approximately USD500 million.

    The other earlier optic fiber submarine cable systems in APAC region includes:

    • Trans Pacific Cable-3 (TPC-3), linking Japan and US. The route length is 13400km and the system capacity is 280Mbps.
    • Trans Pacific Cable-4 (TPC-4), linking Japan and US. The route length is 9800km and the system capacity is 560Mbps.
    • Trans Pacific Cable-5 (TPC-5) , linking Japan and US. The route length is 22500km and the system capacity is 5Gbps.
    • Asia Pacific Cable (APC), linking Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hon Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore. The route length is 7500km and the system capacity is 560Mbps.
    • Fiberoptic Link Around the Globe(FLAG, or FLAG Europe Asia, or FEA), linking Japan, Northeast-Southeast-Southwest Asia, Middle East, Mediterranean and North Europe. The route length is 27000km and the initial system capacity is 5Gbps.


    APCN Cable Map

  • The Asia Pacific Cable Network 2 (APCN-2) is a 19,000-km submarine cable system linking Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Philippines, Malaysia, and Singapore in a ring configuration, with four fiber-pairs connecting 10 submarine cable landing stations in Asia region, ready for service on December 20, 2001.

    The APCN-2 is the first submarine cable system that has a self-healing function in the Asia region, and is capable of restoring itself instantly with its ring configuration when a failure occurs in a part of the system.

    The APCN-2 has an initial design capacity of 2.56 Tbps by operating with 64x10 Gbps DWDM technology and four fiber-pairs ring.

    The total initial investment of APCN-2 project is more than US$ 1 billion, including US$800 million supply contract awarded to NEC Corporation.

    In 2010, the APCN-2 cable system was upgraded with 40Gbps DWDM technology. And it was further upgraded with 100Gbps DWDM technology in 2014. 

    For further information, please refer to articles about APCN-2 Consortium and APCN-2 cable network.


  • Apricot subsea cable system is a 12,000-kilometer subsea cable connecting Japan, Taiwan, Guam, the Philippines, Indonesia and Singapore.

    The Apricot cable system will feature a state-of-the-art submersible reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer employing wavelength selective switch for a gridless and flexible bandwidth configuration, based on space division multiplexing design.

    The main trunk of the Apricot cable system consists of 12 fiber pairs, each having a design capacity of approximately 17.6 Tbps using current technology, for a total system capacity of approximately 211 Tbps.

    The Apricot consortium comprises NTT, Chunghwa Telecom (CHT), PLDT, Google and Meta.

    NTT is responsible for operating and managing three cable landing stations for the Apricot cable system: Minamiboso CLS in Japan, Tuas CLS in Singapore and a cable landing station in Indonesia.

    PLDT will build new cable landing stations in Luzon and Mindanao as part of the Apricot cable system. 

    Segments, Landing Stations and Ownership

    • Main trunk: connecting Tuas, Singapore, to Minami Boso, Japan, with 12 fiber pairs and a length of 8,232 kilometers. NTT owns 2FPs, CHT 1FP, PLDT 1FP, Google 4FPs, Meta 4FPs. 
    • Tanjung Pakis Branch: connecting Tanjung Pakis, Indonesia, with a branching unit on the Main Trunk, with 10 fiber pairs and a length of 242 kilometers. NTT owns 4FPs, CHT 2FPs, Google 2FPs, Meta 2FPs.

    • Batam Branch: connecting Batam, Indonesia, with a branching unit on the Main Trunk, with 14 fiber pairs and a length of 8 kilometers. NTT owns 4FPs, CHT 2FPs, Google 2FPs, Meta 6FPs.

    • Davao Branch: connecting Davao, Philippines, with a branching unit on the Main Trunk, with 4 fiber pairs and a length of 181 kilometers. PLDT owns 2FPS, Meta 2FPs.

    • Baler Branch: connecting Baler, Philippines, with a branching unit on the Main Trunk, with 15 fiber pairs and a length of 479 kilometers. PLDC owns 2FPs, Google 6FPs, Meta 7FPs.

    • Agat Branch: connecting Agat, Guam, to a branching unit on the Main Trunk, with 13 fiber pairs and a length of 2,198 kilometers. PLDT owns 1FPs, Google 6FPs, Meta 6FPs.

    • Taiwan branch: connecting Toucheng, Taiwan to a branching unit on the Main Trunk, with 16 fiber pairs and a length of 632 kilometers. CHT owns 2FPs, NTT 2FPs, PLDT 1/2 FP, Google 6FPs, Meta 5.5 FPs.

    • Five unused branching units: to connect the Main Trunk to Perth, Australia; Surabaya, Indonesia; Makassar, Indonesia; Balikpapan, Indonesia; and Palau.

    Landing Parties

    • NTT: the landing party for Minami Boso, Japan; Tuas, Singapore; Tanjung Pakis and Batam, Indonesia. 
    • PLDT: the landing party for Davao and Baler, Philippines.
    • CHT: the landing party for Toucheng, Taiwan.
    • Google (GU Holdings): the landing party for Agat, Guam, USA.
    Apricot cable map


  • The Batam Sarawak Internet Cable System (BaSICS) is a submarie cable connecting Sarawak (Malaysia) and Batam (Indonesia), spanning about 700km.

    The BaSICS cable system consists of 6 fiber pairs, designed with 80x100Gbps per fiber pair, i.e. 8Tbps per fiber pairs, for a total system capacity of 48Tbps.

    The BaSICS cable system is privately developed by PP Telecommunication Sdn. Bhd. (PPTel), a Sarawak-based company, with XL Xiata as its landing partner in Batam, and supplied by FiberHome as its first repeatered international subsea cable project.

    The BaSICS cable system lands at PPTEL DC @Santubong 1 in Kuching, Sarawak. PPTEL DC @Santubong 1 is certified with Tier-IV Design Certification by Uptime Institute.

    The BaSICS cable system has been ready for service as of June 1, 20022. It forms the shortest latency route from Sarawak to Singapore, less than 9ms between PPTEL DC @Santubong 1 and Equinix Singapore SG3.

    PPTel also host the Sarawak International Internet Gateway (SIIG) at the PPTEL DC @Santubong 1.

    On August 2, 2022, PPTEL announced its new corporate brand identity, "irix", to align with the transformation that is being undertaken across the organization.

    On September 6, 2022, irix officially launched the Batam-Sarawak Internet Cable System (BaSICS) and Tier IV Data Centre, the irix DC @ Santubong 1 (irix DC).

    BaSICS cable system
    BaSICS cable system, Image credit: irix


  • The Bay of Bengal Gateway (BBG) is a 8,000 km subsea cable system connect the UAE, Oman, India, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia, with a diverse terrestrial network from Malaysia to the Singapore points-of-presence at Equinix and Global Switch.

    BBG consortium comprises Telekom Malaysia, Vodafone Group, Omantel, Etisalat, Reliance Jio Infocomm and Dialog Axiata.

    Based on 100G DWDM coherent technology, BBG offers capacity of 10 Tbps per fibre pair on its three fiber pairs.

    BBG goes live on April 8, 2016.


    BBG Cable Map


    BBG Cable Network Connectivity


  • The Batam-Dumai-Melaka (BDM) submarine cable connects Malaysia and Indonesia with two routes, Melaka-Batam and Melaka-Dumai. The total cable lenght is approximately 400km.

    The BDM cable runs across the Strait of Malacca, crossing over multiple existing submarine cables. There are extraordinarily busy shipping lanes, strong tidal currents and shoal water area, with 60 m as maximum depth. The BDM cable is buried 3 meters under the seabed.

    The BDM cable system consists of 4 fiber pairs, two fiber pairs on each of Melaka-Batam and Melaka-Dumai routes, with a total system capacity up to 2.56Tbps (64ch x 10G x 4fp).

    The BDM consortium comprises Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM),  PT XL Axiata Tbk and PT Mora Telematika Indonesia (Moratelindo). Huawei Marine Networks (now HMN Tech) offers end-to-end turnkey submarine system solutions for the BDM project.

    The BDM cable system was ready for service in December, 2011.


    BDM Cable Route
    BDM Cable Route, Source: HMN Tech


  • The Bharat Lanka Cable System is a 320-km submarine cable systems connecting  India and Sri Lanka. Initially it will have a capacity of 40 Gbit/s that will later be upgraded to 960 Gbit/s.

  • The Bridge One is a new subsea cable connecting Pohang, South Korea to Fukuoka, Japan.

    The Bridge One cable system is planned by DCT cable, a South Korea company. The system is expected to be ready for service in 2025, with 24 fiber pairs.

  • Cahaya Malaysia is a two-fibre-pair cable system which is part of the 6-fibre-pair Asia Submarine-cable Express(ASE). While Cahaya Malaysia is owned by TM, the remaining 4 fibre pairs of the ASE are owned by NTT, StarHub and PLDT.

  • Converge ICTSI Domestic Submarine Cable Network (CDSCN) is a domestic submarine cable network in the Philippines, spans 1,824 kilometer connecting 22 landing stations throughout the Philippines.

    CDSCN consists of 48 fiber cores (24 fiber pairs), running on 400G and 800G technology, being an unrepeatered cable system.

    CDSCN serves as a National Backbon Network of Converge ICT to interconnect major islands in the Philippines and serve high speed internet/broadband nationwide with highly efficient and effective services in reasonable and affordable price.

    CDSCN is privately owned by Converge ICT Solutions Inc., a telecommunications company duly licensed to install, operate and maintain nationwide wired and wireless broadband network in the Philippines

    The project is implemented by Metroworks ICT Construction Inc.  a subsidiary of Converge ICTSI. Metroworks ICT Construction Inc. is responsible for the Converge ICTSI’s Network Infrastructure build.

    CDSCN is supplied by HMN Tech.

    Converge completed the project on October 31, 2021.


    Coverge Domestic Submarine Cable Network
    Coverge Domestic Submarine Cable Network


  • Chennai-the Andaman & Nicobar Islands (A&N Islands) submarine cable system includes a segment with repeaters from Chennai to Port Blair and seven segments without repeaters between the islands of Havelock, Little Andaman (Hutbay), Car Nicobar, Kamorta, the Great Nicobar Islands, Long Island and Rangat. The total cable length will be approximately 2,300km and carry 100Gb/s optical waves.

    The Chennai-A&N Island submarine cable system is invested by Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL),and supplied by NEC. BSNL is a state-owned telecom operator in India. It's reported that the government of India spent $175 millionon the 2300km Chennai-A&N Island submarine cable system.

    On August 10, 2020, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Chennai-A&N Island submarine cable between Chennai and Port Blair via video conferencing. The Chennai-A&N Island submarine cable system will deliver bandwidth of 2 x 200 Gbps between Chennai and Port Blair, and 2 x 100 Gbps between Port Blair and the other islands of Andaman and Nicobar Islands chain.

    Chennai-A&N Islands Cable Route

  • The Dumai Malaka Cable System (DMCS) is a 147-km repeaterless submarine telecommunications cable system connecting Dumai in Indonesia and Malaka in Malaysia. The DMCS was ready for service in 2005, with a design capacity of 320 Gbps and lit capacity of 20 Gbps. The Dumai Malaka Cable System is supplied by NEC .

  • The EAC-C2C Network is a merger of the EAC network and the C2C network, Asia’s largest privately-ownedsubmarine cable network, with a design capacity of 17.92 Tbps to 30.72 Tbps, a total cable length of 36,800 km, and 17 cable landing stations covering Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines and Singapore. 

    The East Asia Crossing (EAC) cable system spans 19,800 km, linking Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines and Singapore. The EAC network was initially constructed by Asia Global Crossing which was acquired by China Netcom in 2002. And then China Netcom sold out Asia Netcom (including the EAC network assets) to an investor group led by Ashmore and Spinnaker in 2006.

    The City-to-City (C2C) cable system stretches 17,000, linking Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines and Singapore. The C2C network was initially constructed by SingTelin 2000-2002.

    In 2007, Asia Netcom (now Pacnet) took over the control of C2C and merged the EAC and C2C networks into an integrated EAC-C2C Network.

    In 2008, Pacnet Internet and Asia Netcom merged to form new Pacnet.

    In April 2015, Telstra completed the acquisition of Pacnet. EAC-C2C network is now wholy owned by Telstra. 

    For more description on EAC and C2C cable systems, please visit EAC cable system overview and C2C cable system overview.

  • The Fiber Optic Gulf (FOG) is a 1300km submarine cable system connecting Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and United Arab Emirates (UAE), ready for service in June 1998.

    The FOG consortium comprises Kuwait Ministry of Communications, Batelco, Ooredoo and Etisalat.

    The FOG cable system lands at:

    • Kuwait City, Kuwait
    • Manama, Bahrain
    • Doha, Qatar
    • Dubai, United Arab Emirates


  • The Flag North Asian Loop(FNAL) or Reach North Asian Loop (/RNAL) each represents a part of a 9,800 km Intra-Asia submarine cable system, the North Asian Loop submarine cable system linking Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong in a ring configuration.

    The entire FNAL/RNAL submarine cable system consists of 6 fiber pairs, initially designed with 64x10 Gbps DWDM technology. Reliance Globalcom (FLAG Telecom) and PCCW Global (Reach) each owns three of the six fiber pairs respectively.

    The North Asian Loop cable system was jointly built by FLAG Telecom and Level 3 Communication.

    Level 3 Communications built its eastern leg connecting Hong Kong, Taiwan and Japan and put it into service in July 2001. In the end of 2001, Reach acquired the North Asian Loop and other assets from Level 3 Communications. In March 2011, PCCW Global announced the completion of Reach's joint-venture alignment to take over most part of Reach's assets including the RNAL.

    FLAG Telecom built the western leg connecting Hong Kong, Korea and Japan. And Reliance acquired FLAG Telecom in 2003.

    In August 2011, Reliance Globalcom successfully upgraded it FNAL to 40G submarine network, to introduce 10G LAN PHY and OTN services in the FNAL submarine cable network. 

    PCCW Global announced in January 2012 to upgrade the RNAL with 100G network solutions.

    For more information about the FNAL/RNAL cable system, please click here

  • Globe Telecom’s Fiber Optic Backbone Network comprises three parts, i.e. Globe's FOBN and FOBN-2 and Telecphil's National Digital Transmission Network (NDTN), connecting the entire Philippines with more than 12,000 kilometers of submarine and land cables. 


    In early 2002, Globe Telecom and Fujitsu signed an $80-million contract covering the supply of transmission systems and submarine fiber optic cable system for Globe’s Fiber Optic Backbone Network (FOBN1) project, including the installation of land fiber optic cable, new buildings for equipment, DC power plant, generator sets, and other support facilities needed for the project, on a turnkey basis. This FOBN project connects Globe Telecom’s existing telecom network in Makati, stretching to Nasugbu in Batangas, connecting Mindoro, the islands of Panay and Negros, Cebu province, and Iligan City in Mindanao, with a total cable length length of 1,600 kilometers (combination of submarine and land cables).


    In November 2009, Globe Telecom completed the FOBN2, which spanning over 1,900 kilometers of inland and submarine cable, covering most areas of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The FOBN2 project cost was around $70 million. FOBN2 serves as protection route for FOBN1.

    In Septermber 2013,  Globe Telecom completed rollout of a 400km submarine fibre optic backbone connecting Palawan with the main island of Luzon, strengthening Palawan’s connectivity with the entire country and the rest of the world.



    National Digital Transmission Network (NDTN) was first launched in 1999 and built at an original cost of $70 million.

    NDTN was owned the Telecoms Infrastructure Corp. of the Phils. (Telecphil), a seven-member joint venture consortium composed of BayanTel (57% as majority owner), Digitel, Eastern Telecoms (ETPI), Extelcom, Globe, Philippine Telegraph and Telephone Corp. and Smart. Telecphil was the second largest backbone network operator in the Philippines, following PLDT.

    Globe Telecom acquired BayanTel in 2013 and 50% of ETPI in 2016, being the majority owner of Telecphil and its National Digital Transmission Network (NDTN). The NDTN backbone has a total length of 2,741 km.

    Globe Telecom Domestic Fiber Optic Backbone Network (FOBN))


  • Hainan to Hong Kong Express (H2HE) is a 675 km submarine cable system connecting Hong Kong SAR and Hainan Province, Mainland China, with branch to Guangdong Province.

    The H2HE cable system is the first 16 fiber-pair repeatered submarine cable system in the world, designed with SDM technology, achieving 19.2Tbps capacity per fiber pair, and 307.2Tbps system capacity. 

    The H2HE cable system is invested and owned by China Mobile, supplied by HMN Tech.

    H2HE Cable Route
    H2HE Cable Route,     Image Credit: HMN Tech